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**The following table describes the key features of each strategy stage of the Number Framework.**

Stage 0: Emergent |
The student is unable to consistently count a given number of objects because they lack knowledge of counting sequences and/or one-to-one correspondence. |

Stage 1: One-to-one Counting |
The student is able to count a set of objects or form sets of objects but cannot solve problems that involve joining and separating sets. |

Stage 2: Counting from One on Materials |
The student is able to count a set of objects or form sets of objects to solve simple addition and subtraction problems. The student solves problems by counting all the objects. |

Stage 3: Counting from One by imaging |
The student is able to visualize sets of objects to solve simple addition and subtraction problems. The student solves problems by counting all the objects. |

Stage 4: Advanced Counting |
The student uses counting on or counting back to solve simple addition or subtraction tasks. |

Stage 5: Early additive Part-Whole |
The student uses a limited range of mental strategies to estimate answers and solve addition or subtraction problems. These strategies involve deriving the answer from known basic facts, (eg. doubles, fives, making tens). |

Stage 6: Advanced Additive/Early |
The student can estimate answers and solve addition and subtraction tasks involving whole numbers mentally by choosing appropriately from a broad range of advanced mental strategies (eg. place value positioning, rounding and compensating or reversibility). The student uses a combination of known facts and a limited range of mental strategies to derive answers to multiplication and division problems, (eg. doubling, rounding or reversibility). |

Stage 7: Advanced Multiplicative Part-Whole |
The student is able to choose appropriately from a broad range of mental strategies to estimate answers and solve multiplication and division problems. These strategies involve partitioning one or more of the factors, (eg. place value partitioning, rounding and compensating, reversibility). |

Stage 8: Advanced Proportional Part-Whole |
The student can estimate answers and solve problems involving the multiplication and division of fractions and decimals using mental strategies. These strategies involve recognising the effect of number size on the answer and converting decimals to fractions where appropriate. These students have strongly developed number sense and algebraic thinking |